By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week -- A patent application by the inventor Siesel, David (San Diego, CA), filed on March 17, 2016, was made available online on June 15, 2017, according to news reporting originating from Washington, D.C., by NewsRx correspondents (see also Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated).
This patent application is assigned to Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated.
The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "CFTR is a cAMP/ATP-mediated anion channel that is expressed in a variety of cells types, including absorptive and secretory epithelia cells, where it regulates anion flux across the membrane, as well as the activity of other ion channels and proteins. In epithelia cells, normal functioning of CFTR is critical for the maintenance of electrolyte transport throughout the body, including respiratory and digestive tissue. CFTR is composed of approximately 1480 amino acids that encode a protein made up of a tandem repeat of transmembrane domains, each containing six transmembrane helices and a nucleotide binding domain. The two transmembrane domains are linked by a large, polar, regulatory ®-domain with multiple phosphorylation sites that regulate channel activity and cellular trafficking.
"The gene encoding CFTR has been identified and sequenced (See Gregory, R. J. et al. (1990) Nature 347:382-386; Rich, D. P. et al. (1990) Nature 347:358-362), (Riordan, J. R. et al. (1989) Science 245:1066-1073). A defect in this gene causes mutations in CFTR resulting in cystic fibrosis ('CF'), the most common fatal genetic disease in humans. Cystic fibrosis affects approximately one in every 2,500 infants in the United States. Within the general United States population, up to 10 million people carry a single copy of the defective gene without apparent ill effects. In contrast, individuals with two copies of the CF associated gene suffer from the debilitating and fatal effects of CF, including chronic lung disease.
"In patients with cystic fibrosis, mutations in CFTR endogenously expressed in respiratory epithelia leads to reduced apical anion secretion causing an imbalance in ion and fluid transport. The resulting decrease in anion transport contributes to enhanced mucus accumulation in the lung and the accompanying microbial infections that ultimately cause death in CF patients. In addition to respiratory disease, CF patients typically suffer from gastrointestinal problems and pancreatic insufficiency that, if left untreated, results in death. In addition, the majority of males with cystic fibrosis are infertile and fertility is decreased among females with cystic fibrosis. In contrast to the severe effects of two copies of the CF associated gene, individuals with a single copy of the CF associated gene exhibit increased resistance to cholera and to dehydration resulting from diarrhea--perhaps explaining the relatively high frequency of the CF gene within the population.
"Sequence analysis of the CFTR gene of CF chromosomes has revealed a variety of disease causing mutations (Cutting, G. R. et al. (1990) Nature 346:366-369; Dean, M. et al. (1990) Cell 61:863:870; and Kerem, B-S. et al. (1989) Science 245:1073-1080; Kerem, B-S et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:8447-8451). To date, >1000 disease causing mutations in the CF gene have been identified (http://www.genet.sickkids.on.ca/cftr/). The most prevalent mutation is a deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 of the CFTR amino acid sequence, and is commonly referred to as .DELTA.F508-CFTR. This mutation occurs in approximately 70% of the cases of cystic fibrosis and is associated with a severe disease.
"The deletion of residue 508 in .DELTA.F508-CFTR prevents the nascent protein from folding correctly. This results in the inability of the mutant protein to exit the ER, and traffic to the plasma membrane. As a result, the number of channels present in the membrane is far less than observed in cells expressing wild-type CFTR. In addition to impaired trafficking, the mutation results in defective channel gating. Together, the reduced number of channels in the membrane and the defective gating lead to reduced anion transport across epithelia leading to defective ion and fluid transport. (Quinton, P. M. (1990), FASEB J. 4: 2709-2727). Studies have shown, however, that the reduced numbers of .DELTA.F508-CFTR in the membrane are functional, albeit less than wild-type CFTR. (Dalemans et al. (1991), Nature Lond. 354: 526-528; Denning et al., supra; Pasyk and Foskett (1995), J. Cell. Biochem. 270: 12347-50). In addition to .DELTA.F508-CFTR, other disease causing mutations in CFTR that result in defective trafficking, synthesis, and/or channel gating could be up- or down-regulated to alter anion secretion and modify disease progression and/or severity.
"Although CFTR transports a variety of molecules in addition to anions, it is clear that this role (the transport of anions) represents one element in an important mechanism of transporting ions and water across the epithelium. The other elements include the epithelial Na.sup.+ channel, ENaC, Na.sup.+/2Cl.sup.-/K.sup.+ co-transporter, Na.sup.+--K.sup.+-ATPase pump and the basolateral membrane K.sup.+ channels, that are responsible for the uptake of chloride into the cell.
"These elements work together to achieve directional transport across the epithelium via their selective expression and localization within the cell. Chloride absorption takes place by the coordinated activity of ENaC and CFTR present on the apical membrane and the Na.sup.+--K.sup.+-ATPase pump and Cl- channels expressed on the basolateral surface of the cell. Secondary active transport of chloride from the luminal side leads to the accumulation of intracellular chloride, which can then passively leave the cell via Cl.sup.- channels, resulting in a vectorial transport. Arrangement of Na.sup.+/2Cl.sup.-/K.sup.+ co-transporter, Na.sup.+--K.sup.+-ATPase pump and the basolateral membrane K.sup.+ channels on the basolateral surface and CFTR on the luminal side coordinate the secretion of chloride via CFTR on the luminal side. Because water is probably never actively transported itself, its flow across epithelia depends on tiny transepithelial osmotic gradients generated by the bulk flow of sodium and chloride.
"As discussed above, it is believed that the deletion of residue 508 in .DELTA.F508-CFTR prevents the nascent protein from folding correctly, resulting in the inability of this mutant protein to exit the ER, and traffic to the plasma membrane. As a result, insufficient amounts of the mature protein are present at the plasma membrane and chloride transport within epithelial tissues is significantly reduced. In fact, this cellular phenomenon of defective ER processing of ABC transporters by the ER machinery, has been shown to be the underlying basis not only for CF disease, but for a wide range of other isolated and inherited diseases. The two ways that the ER machinery can malfunction is either by loss of coupling to ER export of the proteins leading to degradation, or by the ER accumulation of these defective/misfolded proteins [Aridor M, et al., Nature Med., 5(7), pp 745-751 (1999); Shastry, B. S., et al., Neurochem. International, 43, pp 1-7 (2003); Rutishauser, J., et al., Swiss Med Wkly, 132, pp 211-222 (2002); Morello, J P et al., TIPS, 21, pp. 466-469 (2000); Bross P., et al., Human Mut., 14, pp. 186-198 (1999)].
"3-(6-(1-(2,2-Difluorobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl) cyclopropanecarboxamido)-3-methylpyridin-2-yl)benzoic acid in salt form is disclosed in International PCT Publication WO 2007056341 (said publication being incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) as a modulator of CFTR activity and thus useful in treating CFTR-mediated diseases such as cystic fibrosis. There remains, however, a need for economical processes for the preparation of the cycloalkylcarboxamidopyridine benzoic acids described herein."
In addition to the background information obtained for this patent application, NewsRx journalists also obtained the inventor's summary information for this patent application: "As described herein, the present invention provides processes for preparing CFTR correctors useful in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Such compounds include 3-(6-(1-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl) cyclopropanecarboxamido)-3-methylpyridin-2-yl)benzoic acid (hereinafter 'Compound 1') which has the structure below:
"Compound 1 and pharmaceutically acceptable compositions thereof are useful for treating or lessening the severity of a variety of CFTR mediated diseases. Compound 1 is in a substantially crystalline and salt free form referred to as Form I as described and characterized herein."
URL and more information on this patent application, see: Siesel, David. Processes for Producing Cycloalkylcarboxamido-Pyridine Benzoic Acids. Filed March 17, 2016 and posted June 15, 2017. Patent URL: http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220170158676%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20170158676&RS=DN/20170158676
Keywords for this news article include: Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, ATPase, Anions, Genetics, Chlorides, Benzoic Acids, Cystic Fibrosis, Carbocyclic Acids, Hydrochloric Acid, Enzymes and Coenzymes, Lung Diseases and Conditions, Pancreatic Diseases and Conditions, Digestive System Diseases and Conditions, Respiratory Tract Diseases and Conditions.
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